09
September
2020

Garbage in the ocean as a factor in climate change

Massive pollution of the world's oceans began from the time when people invented plastic (the second half of the 20th century) and began to actively introduce it into their life. Despite the usefulness of this type of product in industry and in everyday life, this "achievement of civilization" in natural conditions decomposes for more than a hundred years (and taking into account the HCC content, this period reaches millions of years). A single water basin is therefore one - the plastic thrown into any river or sea, thanks to ocean currents, gets lost in huge islands. In fact, plastic has become a victim of the scourge of punishing humanity's own success.

To date, a total of 8.3 billion tons of plastic have been produced worldwide. Of this, approximately 6.3 billion tons are now garbage, 79% of which is in landfills or in the environment. If at the end of the 20th century the content of garbage in the ocean was estimated at 400 g / km², then by 2015 it was already 1230 g / km², and in 2020 it exceeded 2000 g / km². The number of small particles is estimated at more than a trillion, and large ones account for 93% of the total mass. In total, this mass, toxic to the ocean, is at least 79 million tons. The size of the center of the largest garbage patch is estimated at one million km2, and the periphery extends to another 3.5 million km2.

 

 

Рис. Zones of debris in the oceans located by the space satellites

 

The problems of anthropogenic impact on the planet's water resources has a number of interrelated consequences that affect global climate change. However, the following factors are the most significant in the process negative for the climate balance:

1. Reducing the area of ​​evaporation in the area of ​​garbage spots

2. Change in the force of surface tension of sea water

3. Change in COD of water

4. Change in the electric charge of water and change in the cloud formation process

5. Change in the redox potential of water in the ocean

6. Change in the electrical resistance of water and the formation of electromagnetic vortex fields

 

  1. Reduction of the evaporating surface.

In the ocean, water evaporates from the surface at any temperature, but with an increase in water temperature, the evaporation rate increases. The higher the water temperature on the ocean surface, the greater the number of rapidly moving molecules that have sufficient kinetic energy to overcome the gravitational forces of neighboring particles and fly out of the water. The volume of evaporation depends on the area: the larger the area of ​​the free surface of the liquid, the more molecules simultaneously fly into the air. At the same time, the average kinetic energy of the molecules remaining in the liquid becomes less and less. This means that the internal energy of the evaporating liquid decreases, the liquid cools.

Debris floating on the surface (especially in patches of debris in the ocean) significantly reduces the evaporation surface. If earlier in this part of the ocean, due to the process of evaporation, there was a process of decreasing water temperature, then at the moment this process is absent. Unfortunately, this factor is gaining momentum more and more and has an irreversible impact on the global warming process.

Conclusions:

In the presence of floating debris on the surface of the ocean, the natural ocean / atmosphere balance, which has developed over millions of years, is disturbed, in which:

• Ocean water temperature in spots tends to increase

• The evaporation area is reduced, which reduces the amount of evaporated water

 

  1. Change of surface tension force.

It is known that at a water temperature of 20 C the surface tension of an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (the main component of seawater) is 85 x 10 -3 N / m2. Due to the abundance of debris on the ocean surface in areas of garbage spots, ecologists and scientists began to observe a decrease in surface tension:

№ spots

Ocean

Temperature С0

Min – Max

W surface tension (Н/м2)

In the open water winter/summer

1

Northern Pacific ocean

11, 7 – 14,2

22 х 10 -3 /40 х 10 -3

2

Indian ocean

16,0 – 23,0

45 х 10 -3 / 88 х 10 -3

3

Southern Pacific ocean

12,5 – 17,0

30 х 10 -3 / 75 х 10 -3

4

Southern Atlantic ocean

13,0 – 18,0

33 х 10 -3 / 78 х 10 -3

5

Central Atlantic ocean

17,0 – 25, 3

75 х 10 -3 / 92 х 10 -3

 

Based on the presented table, the actual evaporation of water in garbage spots by changing the surface tension force can be roughly calculated taking into account the reduction in the evaporation surface.

Vapor molecules located near the surface of a liquid can be attracted by its molecules and return to the liquid again. Both processes always occur on the surface of a liquid: evaporation and condensation. A decrease in the surface tension force leads to an enlargement of the particles of the evaporated water (vapor), which allows us to assume their weak "volatility", leading to an even greater decrease in the evaporation process.

 

  1. Changes in COD

COD – chemical oxygen consumption. The COD value includes the total content of organic substances in the liquid in the volume of bound oxygen consumed for their oxidation. COD is a general quantitative indicator of water pollution, which is one of the most informative and detailed.

 

During the decomposition of components of organic chemistry (and partly of plastic), complex-organic (including complex-oxidized) compounds pass into salt water, which leads to an increase in COD at least tenfold due to an increase in DOM (dissolved organic matter). In the ocean water in the area of ​​garbage spots, oxidation reactions take place with the absorption of oxygen dissolved in the water.

 

This leads to the following phenomena:

• Lack of biological life in water with high COD (phyto and zooplankton)

• Exclusion of the ocean area from the process of oxygen release into the atmosphere (the lungs of the planet)

• The absorption of oxygen from the atmosphere, resulting in the formation of a chemical (oxygen) depression funnel.

• Increase in electrical resistance of water (decrease in electrical conductivity)

• Formation of conditions under which the ocean / atmosphere system strives to make up for the lack of oxygen (these conditions have not been studied, but a priori cause a certain directed flow of oxygen molecules in the air).

 

  1. Change in the electric charge of water and change in the cloud formation process.

Of the numerous mesometeorological processes, convection plays the most important role in the atmosphere, which leads to the formation of cumulus and cumulonimbus clouds. Cumulonimbus clouds account for a significant proportion of precipitation in temperate latitudes and prevailing in equatorial-tropical ones. Free convection, that is, the maximum height of rise of water particles evaporated from the surface, corresponds to the level at which the areas of the "positive" and "negative" regions become equal to each other. This occurs when the stratification (vertical stratification) of the atmosphere is unstable.

The clouds of the lower tier (below 2 km), the middle tier (2 ÷ 6 km) and the upper tier (above 6 km) are distinguished by the base height. According to the phase structure, clouds are distinguished: water (drip), ice, or crystalline, and a mixed structure.

During phase transformations steam – ice, steam – water, separation of electric charges is observed, which is attributed to an important role in the formation of atmospheric electricity. Back in the 1770s. A. Volta demonstrated an experiment that proved that electricity arises "from simple evaporation of water" and that the vapor is charged positively. Repeating the experiments of A. Volta and diversifying them, T. Cavallo found that the higher the amount of charge, the more intense the evaporation (Cavallo, 1779). In addition, a temperature difference applied to the boundaries of a certain system is capable of generating an electric current in it (Seebeck effect). Protons and hydroxide ions arise in vapor due to thermal ionization of water molecules, and also enter vapor from water during interfacial exchange of particles. Their concentration, based on the experimental value of electrical conductivity σ = 10–13 Ohm – 1⋅m – 1 and the value of the diffusion coefficient D = 10–7 m2⋅s – 1 [Babichev et al., 1991], can be N pairs = (σ / D) * (kT / e2) = 1.5⋅1011 m – 3, where k is the Boltzmann constant; T is temperature, K; e is the electron charge.

 

Conclusions:

• Interphase separation of electric charges during evaporation from the surface of a water composition with a high COD value occurs on charge carriers - hydroxide ions, which provides a positive charge of water during evaporation.

• Positively charged particles of water (vapor) have low kinetic energy (ascent rate), which ensures the formation of mainly the lower layer of clouds (below 2 km), which are unable to travel long distances.

• The map of precipitation is changing. This is especially true in areas where rainfall was previously dominated by garbage-free and now contaminated parts of the ocean. That is, where there were earlier rains, it becomes dry, and where droughts prevailed earlier, precipitation falls.

 

  1. Change in the redox potential (Eh) of the surface layers of the world ocean.

Factors of Eh formation: Natural waters contain ions of different valence and neutral molecules of the same element, which constitute a separate redox system:

• Oxidative - characterized by values ​​of Rx> + (100 - 150) mV (pure seawater has an ORP from +100 to +200 mV), the presence of free oxygen in water, as well as a number of elements in the highest form of their valence (Fe3 +, Mo6 +, As5-, V5 +, U6 +, Sr4 +, Cu2 +, Pb2 +).

• Transient - determined by Rx values ​​from 0 to + 100 mV, unstable geochemical regime and variable content of hydrogen sulfide and oxygen. Under these conditions, both weak oxidation and weak reduction of a number of metals occur.

• Reducing - characterized by Rx <0. This system is typical for waters where metals of low valence (Fe2 +, Mn2 +, Mo4 +, V4 +, U4 +) are present, as well as hydrogen sulfide. While the upper layers of water acquire acidic properties, the value of the redox potential decreases.

Conclusions:

• A change (decrease) in the redox potential of the surface layers of the world's ocean water occurs due to its anthropogenic pollution.

• Redox potential in the area of ​​garbage spots decrease sharply. The greatest impact is exerted by pollution with complex organic compounds, because this type of compounds is not oxidized and mainly reducing chemical reactions take place in water.

• In the area of ​​garbage spots, a static discharge is formed, similar to a depression funnel, which causes counter processes from the side of ocean currents, which are aimed at restoring the redox potential of water.

 

  1. Change in the electrical resistance of water and the formation of electromagnetic vortex fields.

Vortex currents, or Foucault currents - eddy induction volumetric electric current that occurs in electrical conductors when the flow of the magnetic field acting on them changes over time.

Since the electrical resistance of a massive conductor, which is the World Ocean (the higher the salinity, the greater the conductivity) can be small, the strength of the induction electric current caused by Foucault currents can reach extremely high values. Since Foucault's currents represent an electric current in the volume of a conductor (water), then due to the objectively available generator of electromagnetic waves (the planet's magnetic field), the currents on the ocean surface become stronger than in the depths (skin effect). In this case, the greatest stability and duration of life in nature has a short vortex - this is a torus, in which all energy is concentrated in small volumes, and in which in nature energy is not spent on overcoming the friction of the walls of the vortices on the medium.

 

Рис. View of the Earth’s electromagnetic field without debris in the ocean (traditional torus)

 

In the area of ​​garbage spots, due to the constantly increasing number of tons of plastic microparticles on its surface and in the water column, the redox potential of water changes. The electrical conductivity of a volume of water (salt water is an electrolyte and plastic is a dielectric) drops and decreases with the amount of plastic. In this case, the electric charge of the field changes towards negative values ​​and a vortex effect is created, in which (in accordance with Lenz's rule) Foucault's currents in the volume of water, which is a conductor, choose such a path that to the greatest extent oppose the reason that causes their flow.

In simple words, the natural torus of the Earth's electromagnetic field, due to the presence of suspended plastic micro particles on the surface of the water and in its thickness, begins to stretch. Its graphic model of the torus is changing and already looks like this:

                          

                                                          Рис. View of the torus on top of debris spot

 

As a result, due to garbage spots on the ocean surface, today the graphic model of the Earth's electromagnetic field as a whole look like this:

 

 

 

 

From the above, a conclusion should be drawn about the causes of vortexes / tornadoes in various parts of the planet.

Most of all in the world, the cause of tornadoes is considered a thunderstorm, or rather thunderclouds, which form fast-moving air currents, which subsequently form a funnel, slowly extending to the surface of the earth. At the same time, all sources claim that this phenomenon has been little studied and that there are significant disagreements among climatologists.

Another understanding is acceptable that this effect, caused by Foucault currents, allows one to form a hypothesis about the real origin of tornado-tornadoes, which are formed with constant periodicity at different points of the planet.

The standard and constantly occurring natural phenomenon of the detachment of massive blocks of ice from glaciers, known as the Iceberg, has a similar effect due to the fact that, moving to warmer climatic zones, due to the melting of the iceberg, a sufficiently large volume of fresh water forms around it, which changes the redox - potential, surface tension force and sharply reduces its electrical conductivity. This leads to the formation of vortex funnels in the electromagnetic field in the area of ​​the iceberg, in the form of a torus. The larger the iceberg, the larger the formed torus. After a certain time, an effect similar to the saturation effect occurs, in which a certain "separation" of a given energy vortex from a specific geographic point occurs. An electrical breakdown between clouds (ionosphere, etc.) and the earth's surface or ocean water in the form of lightning (thunderstorms) that occurred at another point on the planet, according to the law of conservation of energy in the electromagnetic circuit "Planet Earth" forms a counter charge (a kind of compensatory electromagnetic vortex) which leads to the emergence of both hurricanes and vortex air tornadoes, called "Tornado". The location of the point of origin of the "compensation vortex" depends on many factors, including astrophysical ones, for example, the solar wind, as well as the gravitational (tidal) and electromagnetic effects of the planet Moon on the planet Earth.

The intensity of the Earth's geo electric field at an altitude of 20 km is about 130 V / m, which leads to super powerful discharges and the discharge of excess energy accumulated in the atmosphere, and the formation of natural phenomena. A debris spot, like a dielectric, prevents the discharge from occurring and leads to a redistribution of energies. A discharge occurs either in the adjacent region with a spot of increased power, or the field strength increases until a breakdown of an additional dielectric (debris spot) occurs. Hence, unprecedented tornadoes, tornadoes, typhoons, which form powerful downdrafts of air, which in turn cause fluctuations in the water on the ocean surface, leading to floods and tsunamis. All the factors considered in the sum make global changes in this relatively balanced process, which has been formed over billions of years. This imbalance is reflected in particular in the climate change that has taken place over the past 50 years.

 

CONCLUSION

Humanity should think and understand that the further accumulation and increase of debris in the oceans can cause an irreversible reaction (similar to a chain reaction) to desynchronize the electromagnetic system of the planet as a whole. Humanity turned out to be unprepared for such large-scale changes affecting all corners of the planet. The current global climate change, due to garbage spots in the oceans, has caused a number of irreversible consequences already on every continent of our planet.

We conducted our own research, overlaying a map of adverse natural factors that have occurred in the world over the past decades, and revealed a clear relationship between the geographical location of garbage spots in various oceans and climate change on the following continents:

 

Northern Pacific: Western part Eastern part

                                                 

North America

Europe

Indian ocean

Australia, South-East Asia

South Pacific

Central America, South America

South Atlantic

South America

Central Atlantic

Central America

 

The main task of mankind today is to reverse the situation and gradually begin to solve the problem of "garbage in the ocean" until it passes into the stage of an irreversible process.